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the Telescope "+рссы"

the Science and technics
 
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it is high over the Earth, with clearness and the accuracy of the image inaccessible to land optical tools, observes of the Universe a space telescope "+рссы".

Usually astronomers built the observatories at tops of mountains, above clouds and the polluted atmosphere. But even then the image was deformed by air streams. The most accurate image is accessible only from an extra-atmospheric observatory - space.

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By means of a telescope it is possible to see that is inaccessible to a human eye as the telescope collects more than electromagnetic radiation. Unlike a telescope in which for gathering and light focusing lenses are used, in the big astronomical telescopes this function is carried out by mirrors. Telescopes with the greatest mirrors should have the best image as collect the radiation greatest quantity. And though diameter of a mirror "+рссыр" only 2,4 m - less than the greatest telescopes on the Earth, - he can see objects in 100 times less accurate, and details ten times more small, than the best land telescopes. And it because it is above deforming atmosphere.

the Telescope Hubble the Space telescope "+рссы" (KTH) has been started into a circumterraneous orbit by a space shuttle "-шёъртхЁш" in April, 1990 For sky photographing onboard is available two basic tools. One, so-called. The wide-angle planetary chamber (WFPC), it is intended for photographing of planets and the big heavenly areas. Another - the chamber for weak objects (FOC) - can remove close up small, indistinct objects, for example, the remote galaxies.

After start KTH operators of National agency of the USA on aeronautics and research of a space (NASA) have tried to focus a telescope, but to the horror have found out that on one image even approximately there was no that clearness on which they counted. Reason finding-out has led to the basic mirror which was considered most perfect. Actually as a result of research it has appeared that the manufacturer has polished a mirror under slightly inexact corner of curvature and consequently it had the wrong form.


Out of focus

The Error in arch parametres made only the one fifteenth hair of the person, but it meant that the bunch of the light beams falling on an external part of a mirror, is not crossed with a bunch of the light beams falling on the central part. This error is called as a spherical aberration. Amazingly, but the telescope was never tested on the earth that could prevent an error before its start.

Scientists have eliminated a computer way deforming effect in telescope pictures. Among seen there was a known effect of a mirage in the distant space, named a gravitational lens. The phenomenon is observed, when the ray of light passes through a strong gravitational field, deviating and creating some images. In this case luminosity of a quasar (small bright extragalactic object) breaks into four separate images a gravity of a galaxy which is in 20 times more close to us. The image which has turned out as a result was similar under the form on klevernyj a leaf. Such gravitational mirages have been predicted in 1915 by Albert Einstein within the limits of the relativity theory, and name them "ъЁхё=юь ¦щэ°=хщэр".


the Storm on Saturn

It is Literally in some months after start KTH in a layer of clouds over Saturn the storm has burst huge force. The telescope has been immediately aimed at a planet, after all such storms - the phenomenon the extremely rare, happening not more often than an once in 30 years. In the storm beginning over Saturn the big white stain which then began to be stretched was formed, having surrounded with a ring of clouds, planet equator that has given the chance to astronomers to fix the winds blowing at the big height.

the Storm on Saturn Besides it, thanking KTH astronomers for the first time have received the accurate image of the tiny moon of Plutona - Harona. This companion is so close to a planet what to see them separately through land telescopes it is almost impossible, and in pictures with "+рссыр" Haron in an orbit it is visible quite distinctly.

The telescope Design allowed to repair it directly in an orbit. Engineers have provided the additional optics correcting refusals of optical devices the same as points correct sight of the person. This system has received name COSTAR (the block of correcting optics).

The space shuttle Started in December, 1993 "¦эфхтюЁ" has reached a telescope at height about 600 km. Distantsionno the operated mechanical hand has grasped KTH and has got it in a cargo compartment where within five days two brigades of astronauts mounted replaceable devices, working in a free space.

In March, 2002 a telescope "+рссы" has been in addition equipped by the advanced survey chamber (UOK), possessing hypersensibility both to visible, and to ultra-violet light. Installation UOK has raised efficiency of supervision "+рссыр" in 10 times.

In 2010 to "+рссыѕ" last expedition will go. Its crew will disconnect all systems and will remove the necessary equipment, and the telescope rests "ё=юыъэх=" from an orbit.


Whether

you Know?

  • the Space telescope has been named in honour of Edvina Hubble, the American astronomer who has created in 1929 the concept extending as a balloon of the Universe. Its work has begun the theory about an origin of the Universe as a result of the huge explosion, known as the theory "сюыі°юую тчЁ№тр".
  • KTH which dale has managed in 1,5 billion. The USA - most expensive from ever constructed companions. It also largest of ever started companions for the scientific purposes. Its length - 13,1 m (priblizitelko length of the Ry car), weight - 11,5 t (approximately weight of 10 cars).
  • For simplification of definition by a telescope of the purposes, astronomers have prepared the catalogue about 15 million stars made by means of computer scanning about 1500 photos of all sky.