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Struggle against fire

the Science and technics
 
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There is no on light of more terrible murderer and the destroyer, than fire. But, having armed with the newest fire-prevention technics and chemicals, the mankind was well prepared for struggle against this formidable opponent.

The Fine-engine vehicle is usually a tanker with 9 or a 15-metre sliding ladder, carrying 1365 l of water. This stock is used only in the event that nearby there is no its other source. In a countryside water quite often swing pumps from the nearest reservoir. At good water supply about 4000 l of water a minute are capable to submit a modern fine-engine vehicle.


the Flaring hell

the Flaring hell One more standard type of a fine-engine vehicle is a rotary ladder. It rotates about the axis and rises on height to 33 m. With its help firemen rescue people in high-rise buildings or submit water for flame suppression. Sometimes instead of a ladder the hydraulic platform at top of the cranked lift is used. On the protected platform is located to 4 firemen. The trunk fixed on it operate or firemen being here, or the operator on the earth. Auxiliary cars concern air-foamy, staff, transporting the equipment, tools, lebedki and dry powder mixes for suppression of fires which cannot be put out water. All these cars are equipped flashing majachkami, sirens and a radio communication.

the Flaring hell to Fire fuel, a heat and oxygen are required. Powerful water streams under a high pressure force down a flame, and sprinklernye systems under low pressure fill in base of ignition. However not it is possible to extinguish any fire with water. Burning oil or gasoline simply floats on its surface. It is the extremely dangerous to extinguish water and burning to the electrical engineer, as water - a good conductor of a current. And if to splash water on some metals they will flash even more strongly.

Combustible liquids usually extinguish foam. Tankers are often loaded by flanks with a foamy liquid which, passing through a fire hose, mixes up with air. On the earth establish lafetnye the trunks which are throwing out streams of foam on 20 with superfluous metres. Some foamy installations are equipped by the huge fans blowing foam through full sleeves, and are capable to reach the most inaccessible places.

Some versions of foam Are applied. Standard foam with low frequency rate (an expansion indicator) is dense and heavy. Despite high efficiency, it badly spreads and is difficult in application as does not flow on a sleeve an equal stream. Foam on the basis of washing-up liquids is easy and quickly extends, especially on liquid surfaces. It apply at land suppression of burning liquids or firm materials.

Air-mechanical foam is applied to suppression of combustible evaporations. obrazujas at mixing of water with surface-active substances and ftoruglerodami, it spreads on a surface of a burning liquid, leaves on it an impenetrable film.

Foam with high frequency rate is ideal at suppression of fires in the closed premises. It is blown from a sleeve in the form of weight of small vials.


Forest fires

To Extinguish forest fire very difficultly if will not take place a strong rain. In 1982 forest fire on island Borneo has captured 36 000 km 2 , having destroyed wood on the area of 13 500 km 2 . It raged 10 months. In the dry summer of 1988 in Jelloustonsky national park in state of Wyoming (USA) from lightning strokes has flashed and the fire has quickly extended. The usual method of struggle against fire - a gulf of a flame from planes - has given nothing. Firemen cut down and burnt out wide glades in woods to deprive of feed approaching fire. When in October, 1988 the fire has ceased, nearby 400 км2, almost half of park has burnt out completely.

Unknown fires have flashed for Christmas of 2001 in the New Southern Wales (Australia). In struggle against elements participated over 200 thousand persons. The Canadian firemen have given in the help the special helicopter of firm "¦Ёшъёюэ" capable to bear 9 tons of water for suppression of fires, however after the whole week of desperate efforts fire continued to storm more than in 100 places. The number of victims managed to be reduced to a minimum, but the material damage was huge: has burnt out 2200 km 2 the earths, the set of farms has been destroyed, and on restoration of populations of animals and plants 15 years are required.


the Fire on a borehole

For fire extinguishing on a borehole a tower take down explosion, a flame suppress water, and then to a chink mouth on a long bar bring nitroglycerine charges. At blasting of charges gas and oxygen are carried away by air streams, without leaving food to fire. On sea chisel platforms a flame extinguish powerful streams of sea water from special fire courts.

When in April, 1986 in the USSR 4th reactor of the Chernobyl atomic power station has blown up, the strongest fire has begun. From heat of an active zone of the reactor - to 2700°С - water has instantly turned to radioactive steam, a rain rushed on firemen. Fire managed to be extinguished only after on the burning power unit have dumped from helicopters nearby 5000 t sand, clay, lead and a pine forest.