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Rockets

the Science and technics
 
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Rockets were initially used as the weapon. Today these powerful, huge devices serve for flights of the person in space and deliveries to an orbit of artificial companions and the various equipment. However rockets with warheads still threaten a life on the Earth.

The First rockets have been started about 800 years ago. In the beginning of XIII century they were used by Chineses against Mongols. As well as in modern fireworks, as motive power of the Chinese rockets the powder charge served. Attached to spears or rocket arrows represented frightening weapon. Mongols have been so shaken that have created own rockets for war with Arabs. To the middle of XIII century of a rocket were and at Arabs. The French crusaders have brought them to Europe.


Rockets in Europe

In 1429 the French armies under Jeanne's command d'ark by means of rockets have defended the Anatto tree in battle against British. But soon rockets have been superseded by more exact weapon - guns.

fireworks Since XVI century of a rocket were used in celebratory fireworks, at first in Italy, and then and in other European countries. And only in the end of XVIII century they have been applied again in operations. In 1792 the British armies which were at war in India, have undergone to bombardment by small metal rockets. Their efficiency has appeared so high that colonel Kongrev has decided to create the rocket weapon for the British armies. By 1804 it has transformed a simple rocket into the extremely destructive weapon with a demolition or incendiary fighting part. But accuracy of hit of this weapon remained low approximately till 1844 when Englishman William Hejl has invented a stabilisation method: the bent shovels in a nozzle forced a rocket to rotate during flight that has given it stability.


Range

Range of flight always was a weak place of rockets. That it flied further, it is possible to increase the sizes for placing bolshego quantities of gunpowder or other kind of fuel. But thus the rocket weight increases, it becomes more difficult for actuating, and range all the same remains limited.

The Decision of the given problem was offered by Frenchman Freze, and the English colonel the Boxer in 1855 Idea has carried out consisted in consecutive connection of two rockets. When the back section burnt out, the explosive charge shot it and ignited fuel of forward section. This multistage design provided the big range of flight, than an one-stage rocket of the same weight as only the part of an initial jet shell should achieve the object. Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky has realised importance of multistage missiles and in 1883 has proved that with their help it is possible to carry out flights in space. But before flights in space it was still far, and rockets were used for other purposes. During the First World War (1914-18) England forced down German dirigible balloons uncontrollable rockets. After the end of war, as a result of indefatigable interest to the rocket production, Tsiolkovsky caused by works, the USSR the first officially has kept development of military rocket technics. In 1929 Research works have started to be spent in the Leningrad laboratory gazodinamiki. In 1933 this organisation together with the Moscow Group of studying of jet movement (GIRD) has created a rocket with the liquid rocket engine (ZHRD), established a height record (5,6 km) in 1936 In 1927 the group of German engineers has organised the Society of space flights. Under the pressure of nazis this organisation has been dismissed in 1934, but separate scientists have continued the researches for the military purposes. So bases of leadership of Germany in the rocket technics have been put during the Second World War (1939-45). Verner a background Brown who has created the first-ever ballistic missile "Ирѕ-1" was the most outstanding German designer of rockets in days of war; applied to bombardment of England in 1944-45


Researches in the USA

Physicist Robert Goddard who has headed in 1920th group of enthusiasts became the American trailblazer in the field of rocket technics. They were possible manage the first-ever rocket with ZHRD in 1926 Group continued to bring the powerful contribution to rocket production up to death of Goddarda in 1945 The same year the Second World War has ended with defeat of Germany therefore the USSR and the USA have got access to rocket technologies and the help from outside their developers. Besides "Ирѕ-2" during the Second World War the small tactical missiles started from a board of the plane or from the earth were applied. An aggravation "§юыюфэющ тющэ№" between the USA and the USSR in 1950th has led to creation of strategic rockets - intercontinental nuclear delivery vehicles.


Artificial companions

Such rockets allowed the Soviet scientists to put small objects into orbit the Earth. In October, 1957 faltering sound signals from the tiny artificial companion started by the USSR - "Ряѕ=эшър-1" - have announced the space age beginning.

Four months later in the USA under the direction of Brown's background reciprocal start has been made. Influence of ideas of this scientist proceeded up to program realisation "+яюыыюэ" in which the huge three-stage rocket "Рр=ѕЁэ-5" has been involved; delivered the American astronauts on the Moon in 19б9г.

The Third law of mechanics of Newton says: to any action always there corresponds the equal and opposite directed counteraction. It means that if you jump from a small boat on coast, energy of your jump pushes away a boat from coast. In rockets the same principle is used. They move at the expense of emission of a stream of substance (usually gas). Action of energy of gas causes counteraction concerning a rocket and forces it to fly. Unlike jet engines for which the fence of air is necessary for fuel burning, in rockets there is all necessary for movement are the independent devices, capable to move in a space.


Rocket fuel

Rocket fuel In the majority of rockets firm or liquid fuel is burnt in the closed volume, and formed gases are issued through the one or several snuffled concerning small diameter. Necessary for burning of fuel oxygen can be received from chemical compounds - for example, kalievoj saltpeter. In modern ZHRD liquid oxygen is often used for burning of such kinds of fuel, as kerosene, liquid hydrogen or gidrazin (azotno-hydrogen connection).

Rocket engines of firm fuel (RDTT) are widely applied thanks to the simplicity and reliability. They are established on the majority of combat missiles, serve as accelerators of some space vehicles and are sometimes used as engines of parts of multistage missiles. However to difficult space flights ZHRD are more preferable, as draught created by them is easily regulated. Besides, at equal weight of fuel ZHRD provide the big draught and acceleration, than RDTT.


Alternative decisions

Though rockets with ZHRD are used for rather short flights on the Moon and other planets of the Solar system, speed developed by them is insufficient for travel to other star systems. The American space probe "-ю фцхЁ-2" for development of high speed used force of an attraction of Jupiter and has accelerated momentum about 36 000 km/h. But even such speed is too small for flights to stars. The star nearest to us (not including the Sun) - Centaur Proxima - is on distance about 40 million in km, and a spaceship flying with speed "-ю фцхЁр-2" 126 000 years are required to reach it. Therefore scientists try to create more high-speed rocket engines.

Rockets with the nuclear engine cannot be started from the Earth in view of radiating health hazard of people, but they can start from space. Such engines can create huge force of draught at the expense of a series of nuclear explosions.


Engines on elementary particles

Other offered variants include transformation of hydrogen to plasma - a gaseous stream of the charged particles. By means of a magnetic field plasma is superseded from the engine and creates draught. One more idea consists in use of electric field for emission from the engine of ions (the charged atoms) mercury or caesium. Tests have confirmed working capacity of such system though draught created thus is improbably small - only 1 kg on each 4 million Vt of the consumed electric power. However at gradual acceleration within many months such rocket, eventually, can develop huge speed.

Earlier one more possibility which has been grown fond in due time to science fiction writers - the photon engine creating draught at the expense of emission of a stream of quanta of light was considered. However and at sharply focused beam of light draught created by photons cannot be compared even to the minimum draught of the ionic engine.