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Musical instruments

the Science and technics
 
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Musical sounds can be taken from the most different subjects. However the best musical instruments do of carefully selected materials, the most suitable for reception of a pure sound of the necessary range.

Musical instruments can be divided into some groups depending on their design and a way of extraction of a sound. Shock, copper wind instruments concern the basic groups of tools, wooden wind, string and keyboard. Sounds published by them are the fluctuations transferred by air and perceived by organs of hearing. Each musical instrument makes sound fluctuations differently. For example, the drum and a triangle publish a sound from blow which forces them to vibrate. In wind instruments the sound makes fluctuation of a current of air. In string tools the sound is generated by vibration of strings which can be pinched from time to time, struck or driven on them a bow.


Frequency and sound height

Frequency of a sound is a quantity of sound fluctuations, or sound waves, for a second. Frequency of sounds of each musical instrument depends on several physical parametres: from length of a column of blown air, length of the keyboard or how the drum surface is hardly tense. The ear of the person perceives sounds frequency from 20 to 20 thousand fluctuations a second. The frequency unit of measure is called hertz; one hertz is one fluctuation in a second.

Each sound has the height. The human ear distinguishes high and low sounds. We well know, for example, that the contrabass publishes low sounds, and the first string of a violin - very high.


Overtones

The Same note taken on different musical instruments, sounds differently. The basic frequency of fluctuations same, therefore is identical also height of sounds, but each tool makes additional, only to it inherent fluctuations and are published by original sounding. Such additional sounds are called as overtones and among the relation of frequencies make a natural number sequence. Besides, the way which the note undertakes, forces it to sound right at the beginning not how further, as helps us to distinguish sounding of different tools. For example, the note taken on a piano, sounds loudly enough as the string publishes it under hammer blow, and then all is more silent: any time a string fluctuates and, at last, fades. Listening to body, we will not hear such changes in a sound, is there is because in organnye pipes air zakachivaetsja constantly.


Percussion instruments

Modern litavry, similar to a huge copper, once really were no more than the most usual copper for cooking on which have pulled a skin of a pet. Now it is the tool, capable to publish a wide range of sounds. By means of a special pedal the drummer regulates a tension of a skin and thus changes sound height.

Bells do of firm metals with high relative density which long enough vibrate from blow. To use the big bells in an orchestra not so conveniently, therefore them replace with metal pipes and plates. Plates cast from copper, and then carefully form to achieve the necessary quality and extent of a sound. Percussion instruments make such different sounds that have no certain height.


Copper wind instruments

Copper wind instruments In essence, each copper wind instrument represents a metal tube with a funneled bell on one end and a mouthpiece on other. The musician clasps a mouthpiece lips and blows air into a tube, it having appeared in a tube, air forms an air column and starts to vibrate.

Different air columns make various fluctuations, and notes of taken sounds form harmonious numbers. The lowest note on each copper wind instrument is called the basic, and it is the most easier than other notes on the physical properties; the complex combination of air fluctuations gives higher notes as overtones of the basic sound. The musician regulates sounding of the tool by lips - they that are strained, are weakened.

The Elementary copper tools take some notes. On such tool as a forge, for example, it is possible to play only seven-eight notes. Others copper are more perfect and is wider on the range: during a centuries-old history their design and design repeatedly improved. So, a pipe in due time have supplied with the gates which have essentially expanded possibilities of game on it.


Wooden wind instruments

Wooden wind instruments can be divided on two groups - flutes and jazychkovye. The musician playing a modern orchestral flute, blows a current of air in dultse, lips giving to an air stream a correct direction. If the musician blows more strongly, frequency of sound fluctuations increases. On a flute there are six, sometimes seven apertures, and closing their fingers, it is possible to take different notes. If such aperture to open, the length of an air column decreases, and the sound height increases.

Other wooden wind instruments work by a little different principle. Breath of the musician actuates a uvula of the tool which the air column in the wooden case of the cylindrical form forces to fluctuate. The clarnet, an oboe and a bassoon concern group of wooden wind instruments.

The Saxophone has been invented in a XIX-th century by Belgian Adolf Saksom. It is the metal tool, but it by tradition carry to the wooden. The saxophone is especially popular in executors of a jazz and pop.


String tools

String tools string Fluctuation creates a sound wave, and the height of notes depends on length of a string and its tension. The musician presses strings to a signature stamp, shortening a sounding part of a string and raising, thus, a taken sound. If it interrupts string sounding on the middle of its length, the height of a taken sound will increase twice - differently, the note will be on an octave above the basic.

That the sound of strings was well audible, it needs to be strengthened that is reached by means of a special design of the resounding case of the tool. At modern string tools of violin family - violins, altos, violoncellos and contrabasses - strings are tense along signature stamps and raised over the resonator by means of special supports - kobylok which direct fluctuations of strings to a resounding part of the tool.

Strings can be made from ketguta, usually received of the sheep guts, but presently the bottom string is usually fitted by the most thin silver thread, and the highest string do of a steel. On the top end of a signature stamp of a string are reeled up on splittings with which help tool adjustment is made: the musician regulates a tension of strings so that they took sounds of the necessary height.


Ladovye string

To ladovym the string the mandoline, a lute, a balalaika and other tools similar to them concern a guitar, bandzho. Their signature stamps are supplied by special metal strips - frets; pressing strings on frets, musicians regulate their length and sing the necessary notes.

In 30th years in the big jazz bands and the orchestras executing a dance music, there was a requirement for strengthening of sounding of guitars that have achieved by means of the special electric adaptations, allowed to pass a sound with the necessary loudness through dynamics. Modern electroguitars are made taking into account all achievements of technics and consequently have continuous cases, without resounding apertures.


Keyboard tools

From the point of view of a design, keyboard tools it is more difficult than any others. The harpsichord was the predecessor of a piano: by pressing of its keys of a string were pinched special plektrom. Unlike a piano, loudness of sounding of a harpsichord is always identical.

By pressing of keys of a piano the hammers upholstered with felt beat on tense on a wooden or pig-iron frame to strings, and speed of blow is regulated by force of influence on keys. Hence, the tool sounds that more loudly more silently, paternal and has received the name ("¶юЁ=х" in Italian means "уЁюьъю" and "яшрэю" - "=ш§ю").

The Big body represents the keyboard wind instrument supplied with pedals. The system of valves directs mechanically made air streams in organnye pipes. In olden days organists were helped by their pupils inflating furs; today air shakes by means of an electricity.

The Electric body simulates sounds of the big body thanks to special electronic generators and sound amplifiers. The electrobody has laid down in a synthesizer basis with which help it is possible to reproduce sounding of any tool or to create absolutely new sounds.