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the Internet

the Science and technics
 
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the Internet is the global computer web, giving the chance mutual connection between networks.

In the beginning the XXI-st centuries the Internet continues the prompt development. The companies and separate users widely use it for almost instant data transmission in an every spot on the globe, and also for search of the necessary information.

The Technology underlying the Internet, has been created in 1969 by the American scientists within the limits of defensive project ARPAnet. Their purpose was to develop a network, impregnable for a nuclear attack - that is if the bomb destroys one component of a network, functionality of the others will not suffer. The data is transferred by packages with use of standard methods of the communication known under the name the Internet report (TCP/IP) - any two computers united by these reports, can be connected in uniform system. Under condition of correct addressing of packages it is possible to send them on the Internet from any and on any personal computer on any route. If there is a failure or refusal of any component, movement of the data simply bypasses the damaged site. The variety of technical possibilities and stability of a network should make impossible introduction in the censorship Internet on which some politicians till now insist.


For the aid to a science

One of key components of the Internet, created in the mid-eighties on means of National scientific fund (NNF) the USA, has given the chance to scientists of universities of all country to share expensive resources of five regional centers of the supercomputers constructed NNF. At that time using the Internet has been limited scientific and official bodies. To the beginning of 1990 connection to the Network became accessible not only for the small enterprises, but also for private users. During the same time the government of the USA has initiated creations of a national information infrastructure, and all this set of factors has caused unprecedented boom of connections to the Network. In 1995 the quantity of Internet users has made 35 million persons, and by 2002 this figure has increased to 560 million persons.

The Internet - the world's largest computer network. There is a number of other types of on-line systems into which it is possible to enter on a telephone line with use of the modem (modulator/demodulator). The modem will transform the data read by the computer to signals which are transferred and translated back in a digital format on other end of connection. On-line systems carry out basically the same functions, as the Internet: e-mail, file libraries and other archives of the information, electronic conferences and access to bases of the corporate data or periodicals.

As Internet creation was financed by the state and universities and scientific institutions were the first users, the information in the Network can be received mainly free of charge. However last years the situation starts to vary as financing of work of the Internet is more and more displaced towards a private sector and protection well-tried remedies are developed new, more. Some components of the Internet are paid today from the means received from advertising.

Besides e-mail (e-mail), Usenet and Networks, the most widespread services of the Internet are Telnet and FTP. Each of them carries out different functions and demands the individual software, "ъышхэ=ёъш§" programs (from computing process in a mode "ъышхэ=-ёхЁтхЁ") which need to be established and started on the personal computer of the user. Larger commercial systems facilitate this problem, delivering the complete set of software products or means.


the appendix Internet

That is called as the general term "Ђэ=хЁэх=" actually is the same part of this system, as well as World-Wide Web, Usenet or e-mail. The same appendices all it in effect or the services functioning on the Internet what the processor is local text. The majority of these services work not only on the Internet - so text the processor for the personal computer can be in the version for "¦яяы ¦ръшэ=ю°". The majority of them can be connected to the Internet, but some specially hold closed of safety or confidentiality reasons just as some companies have the closed telephone systems.


Usenet

Usenet gives the chance an exchange of news between the people who are in different points of the Earth. Unlike the services of e-mail given by private providers, Usenet is the state service. It is similar to a bulletin board in crowded a place on which all interested persons can leave the message. Distinction that such announcements can be absolutely different in subjects, and wishing to answer place responses there where they are visible for all. Almost in each on-line network it is possible to carry on multilateral dialogue - electronic conference.

Usenet it is divided on the themes named "уЁѕяярьш эютюё=хщ" or network conferences. Them more than 10 thousand. Everyone has the name which the computer can easily distinguish and sort. For example, in the group name "alt.fan.letterman" the first part "alt" means "шхЁрЁ§ш¦". In total there are eight basic types of hierarchies, including alt, bio, biz, comp, rec and sci, but there are also others, added in separate regions or services. Other fragments of names of teleconferences Usenet are not so rigidly regulated by rules.

Many believe that the Internet and Usenet - same, but actually it not absolutely so. The Internet is only one of ways of dispatch - or distributions - Usenet worldwide. One more way - direct data transmission from one computer on another by means of telephone connection.


Network teleconferences

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Any user connected to the Internet can read or place the information in teleconferences Usenet. But sometimes the information placed not in that group or placed repeatedly, irritates participants of conference. To observe rules of group of news - "-х=шъх=" - it is necessary to familiarise with an information file of conference, so-called FAQ (frequently asked questions - often asked questions).

There are three ways to reach these files. The first: some weeks to read conference materials successively - files FAQ take places on them periodically, and in two weeks you will see that this file arises there as the regular message. If you have not enough time and a connection condition allow you to use FTP, you will see that the majority of files FAQ of teleconferences takes places on constant site FTP rtfm.mit.edu. Besides, on World-Wide Web (see more low) it is possible to find a large quantity of the sites containing such information.

The World wide web or the Network ("World-Wide Web" was Internet Area in which last years the most dynamical growth was observed;). Bernerz-whether the Network familiar to us as it stands was invented by Tim, nowadays the employee of the Massachusetsky institute of technology (MTI). The invention was based on idea, it is a lot of years reigning minds of developers and received the name "ушяхЁ=хъё=". Any personal computer working with Windows, has the most simple version of the hypertext: the words allocated with a colour font, click by the mouse on which transfers you to other section of file Windows Help. The Network is In the same way arranged also: "ъышъ" on the allocated word forwards you on page or the document where the information on a required theme contains. Difference that such document not necessarily is on the same computer. Unique click by the mouse can readdress you on the computer which is in Australia because the information necessary to you is placed on it.


Viewing programs

Initially the Network represented an information set exclusively in a text kind. Instead of moving of the cursor by the mouse it was necessary to move an arrow, following the reference. This way has remained till now on some on-line services using interfaces based on texts and connections to the Internet ("°ы¦ч№"). However in the early nineties the group of researchers of University of the State of Illinois under the direction of student Mark Andrisena has developed the new program which considerably has facilitated using by the Network. Obozrevatelnaja (or "сЁрѕчхЁэр ") the program "¦ючршър" carried out for the Network the same function which Windows carries out for the personal computer working in DOS: it will transform the text to pictures and uses various graphic elements for convenience of using system. In the beginning 90 "¦ючршър" became a commercial product, and there was a competition - mainly between such giants, as Cello, WinWeb and Netscape.

Occurrence obozrevatelnyh programs has cardinally changed the approach to Network use. For this purpose at all it is not required technical training, besides, that the Network can support all types of data: from the text and a drawing to polnoformatnyh video-audio of clips and even radio- and teleprograms. Internet possibilities allow listeners in Europe or Africa to accept tiny amateur radio stations somewhere on Alaska.


Coding

One of the basic technologies necessary for transfer through the Internet of any confidential information (for example, case records, the data of a credit card, legal documents), is coding. There are ways of coding, "тчыюьр=і" which it is almost impossible, but because of danger that of them criminals can take advantage to hide the frauds, such technologies have not received a wide circulation.