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Fabrics

the Science and technics
 
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When it was found out that from a wool and flax it is possible to spin threads, people have learnt to weave a cloth. The most ancient samples of a linen fabric have age of 7000 years. The first artificial fibres have appeared only in the end of a XIX-th century.

Today for manufacture of fabrics the big variety of natural and artificial fibres is used. Natural fibres receive from various plants and a wool of animals. The sheep wool is the basic source of fibres of an animal origin and consists from keratina (a fiber kind). All fibres of an animal origin have similar structure. Fabrics do of a mohair (a wool of the Angora goat), cashmere (a wool of a Kashmir goat), a wool of an ordinary goat, a camel, the llama, a horse and a rabbit.

Silk receive from cocoons of a silkworm - caterpillars of butterfly Bombyx mori. The silkworm allocates liquid fiber - fibroinogen, - instantly hardening on air and turning in fibroin. Each silkworm lets out a continuous thread fibroina in the length to several kilometres and is wound with it. A silk thread receive, unwinding the collected cocoons.


Vegetative fibres

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Vegetative fibres consist of various kinds of cellulose - a material of walls of vegetative cages. The major source of their reception is the clap. Its long tubular cages form fibres. In seed boxes of a cotton there are the fluffy lumps consisting of thousand of fibres. From them receive a cotton yarn.

The Linen fibre widely used for manufacture odezhnoj of a fabric, receive from flax-dolguntsa stalks. Hempen and jute fibres go on manufacturing of a sacking and ropes, and of fibres of leaves sizalja do a twine.


Artificial fibres

Artificial fibres Viscose (or artificial silk) became the first artificial fibre for manufacture of fabrics. This material have started to let out in the end of a XIX-th century when the basic technological processes of manufacture the viscose applied and to this day have been developed. At first the vegetative material (wood pulp) passes chemical processing in which result receive a cellulose extract. Then from the received solution allocate pure firm cellulose from which make viscose fibres. From a wood pulp receive two more artificial fibres - atsetiltselljulozu and triatsetiltselljulozu.

There are many kinds of nylon representing artificial polyamides - more simple kinds of natural polyamides (a fiber kind). A nylon fibre receive, rasplavljaja and passing small pieces of a chemical product (polymer) through a cap with microapertures - fileru. The received long threads of nylon are cooled and harden, then them them extend a thread.

The Most popular among artificial fibres are polyester. Acryle is widely applied to manufacturing of clothes, carpets and artificial fur. Many modakrilovye fabrics possess fire resistance. Waterproof fabrics receive, putting transparent water-repellent polymer on a cotton basis.


Fabrics

There are three principal views of fabrics: knitted, woven and nonwoven. For reception of first two of fibres in the beginning spin threads, and then them bind.

width="195" Woven cloths make "Fabrics" on weaving looms. Longitudinal threads of a cloth are called as basis threads, and cross-section - utochinami. Various interlacings of threads of a basis and utochin define the fabric invoice. Fabric drawing receive, intertwining with threads of different colours.

Jersey get by education from a yarn of loops and their mutual interlacing. At a batch production a knitted cloth make by the knitting cars equipped with numbers jazychkovyh of needles. At some cars the number of such needles reaches to 2500 that allows to receive more than 3 million loops a minute.

Nonwoven materials receive from a continuous layer of fibres (canvas). Fibres incorporate together at the expense of processing by their sticky pitch. After hardening the pitches impregnated with it of a fibre subject to thermofixing (heating) for giving of durability by it. Fibres of some fabrics connect, prokatyvaja a fabric between hot metal platens. At fusion of fibres between them the strong communication remaining and after cooling is formed. Apply also a method of sewing together of fibres.

The Combined fabrics consist of two and more materials and possess properties of their separate components.


Drawings

The Majority of drawings is put by car. Usually the fabric is passed between metal painting valkami on which the necessary drawing is engraved.

At trafaretnom a way of drawing of drawing, dye is put on a fabric through a network of apertures. The material with which help it is put trafaretnyj drawing, is called sitovym.

At translation printing drawing is put by a paint on a paper. Then a fabric with the imposed paper are passed through a hot press (temperature + 200°Р), thus the moisture evaporates, and the paint is printed on a fabric.