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Energy of the Sun

the Science and technics
 
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the Sun only one of billions stars, but it an energy source for all live and for the Earth. Fossil fuel is spent by such rates that its stocks will be exhausted somewhere in second half of next century. The atomic power stations which once were considered as good alternative, have appeared dangerous that has been shown by failure in Chernobyl (USSR) in 1986 From all alternative sources energy of the sun is the purest and safe.


the Sunlight

Sunlight About 30% of a sunlight is reflected by atmosphere of the Earth, and 20 more% are absorbed. As a result, only 50% reach it surfaces of our planet, but it is equivalent to all energy developed approximately in 170 million of the most powerful power stations of the world.

Many forest fires arise in a heat because of a sunlight focused by droplets of morning dew. In 400 BC Greeks have learnt to use energy of the Sun for kindling of a fire by means of the glass sphere filled with water. To 200 BC a similar way with use of concave mirrors to focusing of solar beams began to apply and in China.

In the modern household solar furnace the focused beams warm up food. Instead of a concave mirror in some furnaces use a number of the flat reflectors established at an angle and directed to the place of placing of food.


Solar heating

All houses are partially warmed with the Sun, but there are the projects allowing as much as possible to use this gratuitous energy source and thus considerably to lower a payment for heating. In such houses the big windows on the party shined with the midday sun, and much more smaller windows on opposite, more cool party are established. In some houses of jalousie from teploizolirujushchih materials are closed for the night that allows to keep the most part of heat which has been saved up for day. It is passive solar technology.

The Solar energy can be used also for water heating of houses. Sun beams heat up water in the flat collector panels absorbing (unlike heating radiators) radiation for water heating. These panels usually establish on a house roof at an angle to catch a maximum quantity of direct solar beams. Cold water proceeds through panels and heats up the sunlight absorbed by them.


Solar elements

Solar elements are electronic devices where at the expense of photo-electric effect light will be transformed to the electric power. Each element makes a few energy, therefore batteries of such elements connected with each other are necessary for electrical supply maintenance in sufficient volume. The element consists of a thin layer of a semi-conductor material, usually silicon. In some solar elements apply other semiconductor - gallium arsenide. They are less effective, than silicon, but can work at ready more heats thanks to what they can be applied on the companions which are exposed to powerful influence of beams of the Sun in space. On energy of solar elements work the majority of artificial companions; it also is used in some electronic calculators and hours.

In 1981 the easy plane "РюырЁ ёІыыхэфцхЁ" has crossed La Manche, using a sunlight as a unique energy source. Plane wings have been covered by the solar elements making energy for management by the electric drive of the air screw. In the State of Florida, the USA, a call box worked from the battery of solar elements established on a roof of a box.


the Electricity in areas

the Electricity in areas In some remote areas the big batteries of solar elements provide the most part of the household electric power which is used for gymnastics of the batteries working on night.

Solar elements are very reliable. After installation they practically do not require leaving and can work as years without service. In Great Britain there are the beacons working in an automatic mode from solar elements. Batteries of such elements are used also in a number of the automatic meteorological stations located along coast and in the sea.

The Electric power received from solar elements, depends not on heat, and from light. Thanks to it the landing radio beacon of 360 kw can work as capacity on a solar energy in the conditions of a frozen ground on Alaska. Since 1960th years, batteries of photo-electric elements are used for manufacture of the electric power for communication satellites. The newest batteries of this kind will be established onboard space station of the USA "ИЁшфюь" planned to start into an orbit at the beginning of the century. In transcendental height this station by means of eight panels krylevogo type will transform a sunlight to 75 kw of the electric power.

The Project of use of the solar energy, offered by the American engineer Peter Glazer, can provide us with energy from space. On a plan of the author, should be started 40 solar orbital power stations (SOE), the solar elements equipped with huge batteries. The received energy will be transformed to bunches of the microwaves sent on reception stations on the Earth. There microwaves will be back transformed to an electricity.

Unfortunately, birds and nonmetallic planes will simply burn down at hit on them of powerful bunches of microwave energy sent SOE.