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Agricultural machinery

the Science and technics
 
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The Modern agricultural machinery plays the important role in manufacture of foodstuff. By means of these cars one person can perform work volume with which before mechanisation introduction only whole brigade for a week could consult for a day.

Possibly, most known representative of agricultural cars is the tractor created in the end of a XIX-th century to replace a horse. It did not protect the tractor operator from a bad weather, and all conveniences were reduced to presence of an emphasis for feet and a rigid metal seat. There were then seats on springs and the guards in some measure protecting the tractor operator from a dirt and a dust, flying from under big privodnyh wheels. However then nothing could save it from death or a heavy mutilation if the tractor turned over on an inclined ground.


the New design of tractors

In the beginning of 19b0 th years on tractors there were seats with pillows and similarity of cabins for creation of more comfortable working conditions of tractor operators. But other kind of inconveniences has been connected with such cabins - noise. The covering from sheet metal like a sound pickup strengthened noise of the engine, a transmission and hydraulic system to such degree that it was reflected on health of the tractor operator.

the New design of tractors Since then the tractor cabin has undergone considerable changes. In the newest tractors of a cabin provide reliable protection of the driver against a bad weather, noise and overturning consequences. Almost all modern cabins have the sound insulation, convenient seats, heating and ventilation systems, screen wipers, stekloomyvateli and busternoe management.

At the majority of tractors the engine and transmission form uniform rigid skeleton of all car and consequently there is no necessity for a separate frame. Capacity of engines fluctuates from 15 to 190 kw and above, however majority engines propashnyh tractors have capacity approximately from 22 to 90 kw.

Usually on tractors the diesel engines providing a drive on back or on all four wheels are established. Besides, engines rotate shaft of selection the capacities which are a drive for tools hook-on or mounted on a tractor, and also for the hydraulic systems operating these tools.

The Basic agricultural tool - a plough. Its appointment is in many respects similar to a shovel - to overturn, loosen and make small the top layer of earth and simultaneously to dig in pozhnivnye the rests and weeds. In the modern mechanised agriculture a plough cling to a tractor though in many countries still use a simple plough to which put horses or bulls.

Before to sow grain in the ploughed earth, it is necessary to execute the spadework closing stage. Like the gardener using a rake for preparation of soil to landing of plants, the farmer uses a harrow for alignment of the ploughed earth and destruction of the remained weeds.

One more kind of cars for preparation of soil and destruction of weeds - a cultivator supplied with steel teeths, or ploughshares, for razryhlenija the earths. The milling cultivator on privodnom to a shaft frequently can be used for preparation of preliminary not ploughed soil.

Today many cultures sow by means of cars which loosen soil, place in it seeds on the set depth and through certain intervals and then close their ground. Such cars sow at once some numbers.


Harvesting

Today harvesting of the most different cultures, including root crops (potato) and fruit (for example, grapes and wine grades of apples) is mechanised. One of the first and major cars the harvest combine used at a harvest of such grain crops, as wheat was such. It is a self-propelled combine which mows, separates grain from straw, deletes a peel, grain in the truck accompanying it falls asleep and dumps straw on the earth for the subsequent gathering.

Often straw rank as a waste and consider that it suits only on a laying cattle or as the rough fodder additive for it.

Usually for transportation and storage straw is packed in bales. It becomes with the help solomokopnitelej - cars towed by a tractor which select the straw left combines, press it in bales and knit a twine. The grass can be co-ordinated in the same way in bales, and the received hay to store as a forage for cattle. Introduction "сюыі°ш§ =¦ъют" became large achievement in sphere of processing of materials in agriculture during the last years;. They weigh about 500 kg, instead of 30 kg - approximate weight of a usual bale with which the worker of a farm can consult. Cars easily cope with the big bales, and straw coordination in the big bales allows to spend much less time for its gathering from fields. Solomokopnitel collects straw, loads it into the chamber where it is packaged in a bale, then this bale ties with a twine and throws out it outside.


crop Processing

crop Processing After harvesting for its processing and storage various cars, such as trailers, vilchatye auto-loaders, conveyors and cars for branch of a ground and stones from a potato are required. The damp earth can cause potato rotting, and stones can beat it, oblushchit or cut up.

The Possible decision is connected with use of X-rays. The reaped crop moves on a tape of the conveyor and, falling from its edge, passes through bunches of the X-rays catching a difference in density between stones and a potato. At stone detection pnevmoshchup snatches out it, passing a potato further. Such trudosberegajushchie technologies are widely adopted, since. Farmers try to keep the low prices for the production in the conditions of a competition.